To better serve the growing needs of clinicians and patients, Ambry Genetics offers a range of diagnostic testing options for X-linked Intellectual Disability (XLID).
Intellectual disability (ID) is a developmental consequence of both syndromic and nonsyndromic origins. Causes can include complex genetic and hereditary conditions resulting from chromosome or single gene changes, errors during embryogenesis, prenatal and perinatal complications and inborn errors of metabolism.
DSM-IV-TR* defines ID as follows1:
X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) is associated with more than 200 conditions linked to >90 genes on the X chromosome.2 XLID affects approximately 1/600-1/1000 males and a significant number of females.3 Research shows a direct cause between identified genetic mutations and underlying cause for intellectual disability. Accompanied findings can also include: congenital anomalies, developmental delay, autistic like and dysmorphic features.
A tiered approach offers the option of Karyotype, Fragile X DNA analysis with a reflex to mPCR for premutation and full mutation alleles and 180K Oligo Array, as well as SNP plus CGH Array with a reflex to several tests most appropriate to the patient phenotype.
XLID is a next-generation panel that simultaneously analyzes 81 genes linked to X-linked intellectual disability. Similarly, First-Tier ExomeTM (~4,000 HGMD-defined genes) and Clinical Diagnostic Exome (~ 20,000 genes in entire NCBI RefSeq) sequencing provides the most comprehensive analysis to date.